Talents reflect the basic abilities of a character. At the start of the game, every character possesses certain talents, and in addition to those others can be learned lateron. To learn a talent it is necessary to find a Trainer who is willing, to expand the characters abilities in exchange for cash and Experience Points. This way even a common Warrior or Soldier can learn the art of Pick Pocketing or Seducing.
To determine whether a person is able to execute a certain task, the game rolls a test in the background. These Talent Tests are generally single tests on one of three Attribute values. For example of you want to haggle for a price with a merchant, the test is rolled on the attributes Courage, Cleverness and Charisma. All three of these test have to succeed, for the Talent Test to be a success.
The Talent Prowess reflects the knowledge of the character in the corresponding talent. The so-called TP is used to simplify the talent test. For example with a TP of 5 points, one test part could be simplified by 5 points, or 2 test parts could be simplified by respectively 2 and 3 points, etc.
Increments on tests make the execution of tasks based on talents more difficult. Here every single test has to succeed with the corresponding increment (disadvantage). For example an increment of 5 points means, that a partial test taken with Courage 12 is effectively changed into a test with Courage 7.
TV* refers to the remaining talent value after a test. Depending on the test this is needed to determine how big the sucess was and what effects it has.